Business Structure

Business structure is an important consideration for any entrepreneur looking to start a business. Choosing the right structure can have a significant impact on a business’s operations, taxation, and liability. Two common business structures are corporations and cooperatives. In this essay, we will explore the differences between corporations and cooperatives, as well as their advantages and disadvantages.


A corporation is a business structure that is recognized as a separate legal entity from its owners. Corporations are owned by shareholders, who elect a board of directors to oversee the management of the corporation. The board of directors then appoints officers to manage the day-to-day operations of the corporation.

Advantages of Corporations:

  1. Limited Liability: One of the main advantages of corporations is limited liability. Shareholders are only liable for the amount of their investment in the corporation. This means that their personal assets are protected from any legal or financial obligations of the corporation.
  2. Access to Capital: Corporations can raise capital by issuing stock or issuing bonds. This allows corporations to raise large amounts of capital to fund their operations and growth.
  3. Perpetual Existence: A corporation has a perpetual existence, meaning it can continue to exist even if the shareholders or management change.

Disadvantages of Corporations:

  1. Complex Structure: Corporations have a complex structure that requires compliance with various legal and regulatory requirements. This can be time-consuming and costly.
  2. Double Taxation: Corporations are subject to double taxation, meaning that the corporation is taxed on its profits, and the shareholders are taxed on any dividends they receive.
  3. Limited Control: Shareholders have limited control over the management of the corporation. The board of directors and officers have the power to make decisions on behalf of the corporation.


A cooperative is a business structure that is owned and controlled by its members. Cooperatives are typically formed to provide goods or services to their members, who are also the customers of the cooperative. Members of a cooperative have equal voting rights and share in the profits of the cooperative.

Advantages of Cooperatives:

  1. Democratic Control: Cooperatives are democratically controlled by their members, with each member having one vote regardless of the size of their investment in the cooperative.
  2. Profit Sharing: Members of cooperatives share in the profits of the cooperative. This can be a significant benefit, especially for small businesses or individuals who may not have access to traditional sources of capital.
  3. Social Benefits: Cooperatives are often formed to meet the social and economic needs of their members. They can provide access to goods and services that may not be available through traditional business structures.

Disadvantages of Cooperatives:

  1. Limited Access to Capital: Cooperatives may have limited access to capital, as they cannot issue stock or bonds. This can make it difficult for cooperatives to raise the funds needed to grow and expand.
  2. Limited Liability: Members of a cooperative are personally liable for any debts or obligations of the cooperative. This means that their personal assets may be at risk if the cooperative is unable to meet its financial obligations.
  3. Limited Control: Members of cooperatives may have limited control over the operations of the cooperative. The cooperative is run by a board of directors, who may not always act in the best interests of all members.


Choosing the right business structure is an important decision for any entrepreneur. Corporations and cooperatives are two common business structures, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Corporations offer limited liability and access to capital but are subject to complex legal and regulatory requirements and double taxation. Cooperatives offer democratic control, profit sharing, and social benefits but have limited access to capital and require members to assume personal liability for the debts of the cooperative.